What's in the House's $867 billion farm bill?
2018-12-12 00:00:00


JUDY WOODRUFF: But, first, let's look at anotherpiece of legislation that was just approved(1)
JUDY WOODRUFF:但是,首先,我们来看看刚刚批准的另一项立法

by Congress today.(2)
今天是国会。

It is the wide-ranging farm bill with a costof $867 billion over 10 years.(3)
这是一项范围广泛的农业法案,10年内的成本为8,670亿美元。

It reauthorizes a variety of farm and foodprograms.(4)
它重新授权各种农场和食品计划。

Among other things, this bill would providenew help for dairy farmers and legalize industrial(5)
除其他外,该法案将为奶农提供新的帮助并使工业合法化

hemp.(6)
麻。

It also avoids cuts that had been proposedto the food stamp program.(7)
它还避免了对食品券计划提出的削减。

Our own Lisa Desjardins joins me now fromCapitol Hill to dig into the details.(8)
我们自己的Lisa Desjardins现在从国会山加入我,深入了解细节。

So, Lisa, remind us, overall, what's in thebill and why does this bill matter?(9)
那么,丽莎总体上提醒我们,这个法案中的内容是什么?为什么这个法案很重要?

LISA DESJARDINS: This bill is critical toa large part of America that doesn't necessarily(10)
LISA DESJARDINS:这项法案对美国很大一部分而言并不一定是至关重要的

live in cities and towns, but keeps this countryfed.(11)
生活在城镇,但让这个国家吃饱。

There are two million farms in this country,Judy, and that number has been decreasing.(12)
这个国家有两百万个农场,朱迪,这个数字一直在下降。

What's more, farmers in America since 2013have seen their net income -- listen to this(13)
更重要的是,自2013年以来美国的农民已经看到了他们的净收入 - 听听这个

-- drop by half.(14)
- 减半。

What the farm bill does is, it keeps programsin place that help stabilize farms.(15)
农场法案的作用是,它保留了有助于稳定农场的计划。

Some of them are subsidy programs, some insuranceprograms.(16)
其中一些是补贴计划,一些保险计划。

But if it doesn't get reauthorized, farmershave less stability, and these are people(17)
但如果没有重新授权,农民的稳定性就会降低,而这些人就是人

who basically are Wall Street traders on tractorsevery day.(18)
他们基本上每天都是拖拉机上的华尔街交易员。

Prices matter.(19)
价格很重要。

And this bill helps them get loans and payfor and plan their next season.(20)
这项法案可以帮助他们获得贷款并支付并计划下一季。

Without it, there's a lot of instability.(21)
没有它,就会有很多不稳定因素。

JUDY WOODRUFF: So, one of the things we mentionedwas dairy farmers.(22)
JUDY WOODRUFF:所以,我们提到的一件事是奶农。

What kind of help are they getting, and howdoes that make a difference?(23)
他们得到了什么样的帮助,这有什么作用?

LISA DESJARDINS: Well, it's significant becausedairy farmers in particular have been hit(24)
LISA DESJARDINS:嗯,这很重要,因为特别是奶农受到了打击

by retaliation from the Trump tariffs.(25)
通过对特朗普关税的报复。

So, let's go through exactly what's happeningin this bill.(26)
那么,让我们来看看这个法案中究竟发生了什么。

This will expand the program that is a safetynet for dairy farmers.(27)
这将扩大该计划,为奶农提供安全网。

In fact, it will give them seven times theprotection that they had in the last farm(28)
事实上,它将给他们七倍于他们在最后一个农场的保护

bill.(29)
法案。

It would allow more farmers to take advantageof that dairy price support.(30)
这将允许更多的农民利用乳制品价格支持。

And also, Judy, it's important to note, someconservatives wanted this bill to tackle the(31)
而且,朱迪,值得注意的是,一些保守派希望这项法案能够解决问题

idea of subsidy reform.(32)
补贴改革的想法。

That is not in this bill.(33)
这不是在这个法案中。

That's a bigger conversation.(34)
这是一次更大的对话。

That's one reason people like Iowa SenatorChuck Grassley voted no.(35)
这就是爱荷华州参议员查克格拉斯利拒绝投票的原因之一。

But, overall, dairy farmers are some of thebigger winners in this bill.(36)
但总的来说,奶农是这项法案中较大的赢家。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Lisa, another part of the billthat has gotten a lot of attention is food(37)
JUDY WOODRUFF:丽莎,该法案的另一部分引起了很多关注,就是食物

stamps, the so-called SNAP program.(38)
邮票,即所谓的SNAP计划。

Tell us how the bill changes that.(39)
告诉我们账单如何改变。

LISA DESJARDINS: So, food stamps make up -- thespending for food stamps -- 80 percent of(40)
LISA DESJARDINS:所以,食品券组成 - 食品券的消费 - 占80%

the farm bill's funding.(41)
农业法案的资金。

And there was a huge fight over whether thereshould be more work requirements.(42)
对于是否应该有更多的工作要求,存在着巨大的争论。

Now, the food stamp program, or SNAP, reaches42 million people.(43)
现在,食品券计划(SNAP)已达到4200万人。

But there will be no changes that could meancuts in that program.(44)
但是,没有任何变化可能意味着削减该计划。

Some conservatives wanted to add work requirementsthat would have led to fewer people getting(45)
一些保守派想要增加可能导致人数减少的工作要求

those benefits.(46)
那些好处。

But that won't happen in this bill.(47)
但这不会发生在这项法案中。

Instead, Judy, I have learned from multiplesources on both sides of the Capitol that(48)
相反,朱迪,我从国会大厦两侧的多个来源那里学到了这一点

the secretary of agriculture, Secretary Perdue,is expected within the next couple of days(49)
农业部长,秘书Perdue,预计将在未来几天内完成

to try and flex administrative power to launcha new rule that could mean more people, especially(50)
试图利用行政权力推出一项可能意味着更多人的新规则,尤其是

in cities and towns, might have to abide bywork requirements.(51)
在城镇,可能要遵守工作要求。

Basically, it means cities couldn't opt outof those work requirements.(52)
基本上,这意味着城市无法选择退出这些工作要求。

We will have to watch for that.(53)
我们必须注意这一点。

JUDY WOODRUFF: So, of course, it's a farmbill, but there's also language in here that(54)
JUDY WOODRUFF:当然,这是一个农业法案,但这里也有语言

addresses wildfires.(55)
解决野火问题。

So, tell us about that.(56)
所以,请告诉我们。

LISA DESJARDINS: This is pivotal.(57)
LISA DESJARDINS:这是关键。

There are some new provisions -- and therehave been over the last year -- that allow(58)
有一些新规定 - 并且在过去一年中已经有了 - 允许

for better use -- better guaranteed fundingto fight wildfires.(59)
为了更好的使用 - 更好的保证资金来对抗野火。

But, Judy, what's most significant here wasthat some conservatives wanted to change rules(60)
但是,朱迪,这里最重要的是一些保守派想要改变规则

allowing for more logging, more clear-cutting,they say something that would prevent wildfires.(61)
允许更多的伐木,更清晰,他们说一些可以防止野火的东西。

They say environmentalists were getting inthe way.(62)
他们说环保主义者正在阻碍他们。

However, Democrats put up a very large fight.(63)
然而,民主党人提出了一场非常大的斗争。

They said that that was actually a problem,that too much logging would come from those(64)
他们说这实际上是一个问题,太多的伐木将来自那些

changes.(65)
变化。

And, in the end, those changes were not made,so a victory, if you will, for environmentalists(66)
并且,最终,这些变化没有发生,所以如果你愿意的话,对于环保主义者来说是一场胜利

on that part of the bill.(67)
在该法案的那一部分。

JUDY WOODRUFF: And, finally, Lisa, languagein here about the legalization of hemp.(68)
JUDY WOODRUFF:最后,丽莎,这里有关于大麻合法化的语言。

LISA DESJARDINS: Right.(69)
LISA DESJARDINS:对。

This is a big deal, a potential $20 billionindustry.(70)
这是一个大问题,一个潜在的200亿美元的行业。

This is happening because Senator Mitch McConnellof Kentucky, a state which has a very large(71)
这种情况正在发生,因为肯塔基州的参议员Mitch McConnell,一个非常大的州

hemp industry, wants to -- wanted to movefrom being a controlled substance, which it(72)
大麻产业,希望 - 想要从一种受控物质转变为它

is now, to not a controlled substance.(73)
现在,不是受控物质。

Judy, quickly, there is an oil that is createdfrom hemp that doesn't have THC in it.(74)
朱迪,很快,有一种由大麻制成的油,里面没有THC。

And this is a victory for Mitch McConnellpersonally and for the hemp industry at large,(75)
这对Mitch McConnell本人和大麻行业来说是一次胜利,

some of which goes to medical purposes andother things.(76)
其中一些用于医疗目的和其他事情。

So it's something to watch very closely.(77)
因此,需要密切关注。

JUDY WOODRUFF: Well, a lot going on insidethis farm bill, and we are so glad to have(78)
JUDY WOODRUFF:嗯,这个农业法案中有很多事情要发生,我们很高兴

you to help us understand what is there.(79)
你帮助我们了解那里有什么。

Lisa Desjardins at the Capitol, thank you.(80)
国会大厦的Lisa Desjardins,谢谢。


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