Foreign Students Boost US Innovation
2013-11-05 15:41:14

Foreign students earning their doctoral degrees in the United States can help revitalize innovation and economic growth.(1)

A new study says the U.S. should make it easier for such students to enter and remain in the country.(2)

Three economists gathered data on the contributions made by foreign students. The team was led by Keith Maskus, professor of economics at the University of Colorado in Boulder.(3)
三位经济学家收集的数据关于外国学生所作的贡献。由基思 · 马斯库斯,博尔德科罗拉多大学的经济学教授带领团队。

“My interest was piqued quite a long time ago after September 11th, 2001.(4)
"我的兴趣被激发起来很久以前在 2001 年 9 月 11 日以后。

One of the reactions to that was that the United States decided for a period of about two or three years to make it much more difficult for students from particular regions of the world to enter the United States and study graduate programs, especially in science and engineering.”(5)

He said, at the time, many in Washington and at universities warned that policy would hinder scientific development and innovation.(6)

“And I thought, well, that’s very interesting, but do we really know if that’s true?”(7)

So Maskus, along with Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak of Yale and Eric Stuen of the University of Idaho, gathered data – a lot of data.(8)
所以马斯库斯以及耶鲁大学的艾哈迈德 Mushfiq 穆巴拉克和爱达荷大学 Eric Stuen 收集到的数据 — — 很多数据。

“So what we did is got very detailed individual-level data on quite a large number of students – over 750,00 students,(9)
"所以我们做了什么是有非常详细的个人水平数据上为数不少的学生 — — 超过 750,00 的学生,

in fact – who had come to get Ph. Ds in the 100 top science and engineering universities in the United States from the late 1970s to the late 1990s.(10)
事实上 — — 谁来拿博士 Ds 100 顶尖的科学和工程大学在美国从 70 年代末到 90 年代末。

And we had information about where they came from, [including] what their visa status was, what area they wrote their dissertations in and, of course, at which university,” he said.(11)
我们有关于他们来自何方,[包括] 其签证状态是什么的信息和什么面积他们写其论文中,当然,在哪所大学,"他说。

The research indicated that diversity – a mix of American and foreign students -- can make a difference in productivity and efficiency.(12)
研究表明这种多样性 — — 美国和外国学生的混合 — — 可以有所作为的生产力和效率。

“It seems to have something to do with the fact that networks and laboratory sciences [are] really a function of how the graduate students and the post- doctoral students and everyone else can specialize in some element of science(13)
"它似乎有些事要与网络的事实和科学实验室 [是] 真的一个函数的研究生和后博士研究生和其他人都可以专门研究中一些元素的科学

and also the fact that their undergraduate training and possibly some graduate training in whatever it is – mathematics or bench science or laboratory science – gives them different approaches to thinking about problems.(14)
并还其本科培训和可能有些研究生培训无论 — — 数学或工作台科学或实验室科学 — — 的事实给他们不同的方法思考问题。

And when these people can get together and bounce ideas off each other the sort of outcome of that is more dynamic intellectual process.(15)

And you get more ideas with having some diversity like that,” he said.(16)

To get a U.S. visa, he said, students must demonstrate that either they or their family has enough money to pay for a substantial portion of their education.(17)

That’s even if the student’s education is paid for by a scholarship.(18)

He says the current philosophy is: you’re welcome to come and study in the U.S., but when you’re done you have to go home.(19)
He says the current philosophy is:欢迎你来来和研究在美国,但是当你完成你要回家去。

“We think that particular need to demonstrate this kind of income based ability to come to the United States is a little bit short-sighted.(20)

Our results show that you really ought to be more open to the highest quality students, regardless of their wealth or income back in their home countries. So that’s one thing.(21)

We would urge modification of American visa policy because of that,” said Maskus.(22)
马斯库斯说: 我们会因此,呼吁美国签证政策的修改"。

Another recommended change concerns permanent residence or green cards.(23)

He said, “If you look at policy in other major importing countries, like Western Europe, Canada, Australia – these countries have gone down the road of dramatically increasing the access of what we call green cards -- they call permanent residence – to international students who do get Ph. Ds in science, technology and engineering fields,(24)
他说,"是否你看看政策的其他主要进口国,像西欧、 加拿大、 澳大利亚 — — 这些国家已经走道路的大大增加了我们所称的绿卡的访问 — — 他们称之为永久的居住地 — — 国际学生在科学、 技术和工程领域,什么博士 Ds

whether in their universities in those countries or maybe in the United States or in some of these other countries.(25)

For example, if you get a Ph. D in the United States, it becomes that much easier to become a permanent resident in Canada.”(26)
例如,如果您在美国获得博士学位 D,它成为那更容易成为加拿大永久居民."

Maskus and his colleagues say it would help the U.S. compete in the world if doctoral students had an easier time getting green cards.(27)

They say, currently, if those students want to remain in the U.S., they must find a local employer, who’ll work on their behalf to get a temporary visa.(28)

“That does have the effect, we’re convinced, of pushing too many of these innovative people back outside the borders of the United States.(29)

So we argue for increasing the number of those visas and focusing on these students -- or even better -- just offering a very quick and straightforward process to permanent residence,” he said.(30)
所以我们主张这些签证和侧重于这些学生 — — 或甚至更好 — 只是提供一个非常快速和简单的过程,到永久居住地的数量增加,"他说。

In their article in the journal Science, the authors say any innovation and economic growth gains would far outweigh any diminished job prospects for American workers.(31)
在他们在科学 》 杂志中的文章,作者说任何创新和经济增长收益将远远超过任何减少的就业前景为美国工人。

All Articles fetched from Voice of America RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds and copyrighted by