Foreign Students Boost US Innovation
2013-11-05 15:41:14


Foreign students earning their doctoral degrees in the United States can help revitalize innovation and economic growth.(1)
赚取他们在美国的博士学位的外国学生可以帮助恢复创新和经济增长的活力。

A new study says the U.S. should make it easier for such students to enter and remain in the country.(2)
一项新研究说,美国应该使这类学生进入并留在国内更容易。

Three economists gathered data on the contributions made by foreign students. The team was led by Keith Maskus, professor of economics at the University of Colorado in Boulder.(3)
三位经济学家收集的数据关于外国学生所作的贡献。由基思 · 马斯库斯,博尔德科罗拉多大学的经济学教授带领团队。

“My interest was piqued quite a long time ago after September 11th, 2001.(4)
"我的兴趣被激发起来很久以前在 2001 年 9 月 11 日以后。

One of the reactions to that was that the United States decided for a period of about two or three years to make it much more difficult for students from particular regions of the world to enter the United States and study graduate programs, especially in science and engineering.”(5)
之一的反应,是世界的美国决定,为期约两或三年,使更多难以为学生来自特定区域进入美国和研究毕业程序,尤其是世界的在科学和工程"。

He said, at the time, many in Washington and at universities warned that policy would hinder scientific development and innovation.(6)
他说,当时,许多人在华盛顿和在大学警告说政策会妨碍科学发展和创新。

“And I thought, well, that’s very interesting, but do we really know if that’s true?”(7)
"我还以为很好,这是很有趣,但是我们真的知道是否那是真的?"

So Maskus, along with Ahmed Mushfiq Mobarak of Yale and Eric Stuen of the University of Idaho, gathered data – a lot of data.(8)
所以马斯库斯以及耶鲁大学的艾哈迈德 Mushfiq 穆巴拉克和爱达荷大学 Eric Stuen 收集到的数据 — — 很多数据。

“So what we did is got very detailed individual-level data on quite a large number of students – over 750,00 students,(9)
"所以我们做了什么是有非常详细的个人水平数据上为数不少的学生 — — 超过 750,00 的学生,

in fact – who had come to get Ph. Ds in the 100 top science and engineering universities in the United States from the late 1970s to the late 1990s.(10)
事实上 — — 谁来拿博士 Ds 100 顶尖的科学和工程大学在美国从 70 年代末到 90 年代末。

And we had information about where they came from, [including] what their visa status was, what area they wrote their dissertations in and, of course, at which university,” he said.(11)
我们有关于他们来自何方,[包括] 其签证状态是什么的信息和什么面积他们写其论文中,当然,在哪所大学,"他说。

The research indicated that diversity – a mix of American and foreign students -- can make a difference in productivity and efficiency.(12)
研究表明这种多样性 — — 美国和外国学生的混合 — — 可以有所作为的生产力和效率。

“It seems to have something to do with the fact that networks and laboratory sciences [are] really a function of how the graduate students and the post- doctoral students and everyone else can specialize in some element of science(13)
"它似乎有些事要与网络的事实和科学实验室 [是] 真的一个函数的研究生和后博士研究生和其他人都可以专门研究中一些元素的科学

and also the fact that their undergraduate training and possibly some graduate training in whatever it is – mathematics or bench science or laboratory science – gives them different approaches to thinking about problems.(14)
并还其本科培训和可能有些研究生培训无论 — — 数学或工作台科学或实验室科学 — — 的事实给他们不同的方法思考问题。

And when these people can get together and bounce ideas off each other the sort of outcome of that is more dynamic intellectual process.(15)
当这些人可以聚在一起,彼此想法排序的结果是更多动态智力过程。

And you get more ideas with having some diversity like that,” he said.(16)
你得到更多的想法,像这样具有某种程度的多样性,"他说。

To get a U.S. visa, he said, students must demonstrate that either they or their family has enough money to pay for a substantial portion of their education.(17)
若要获得美国签证,他说,学生必须表明他们或他们的家庭有足够的钱来支付他们的教育有很大一部分。

That’s even if the student’s education is paid for by a scholarship.(18)
那就是即使对学生的教育为支付的奖学金。

He says the current philosophy is: you’re welcome to come and study in the U.S., but when you’re done you have to go home.(19)
He says the current philosophy is:欢迎你来来和研究在美国,但是当你完成你要回家去。

“We think that particular need to demonstrate this kind of income based ability to come to the United States is a little bit short-sighted.(20)
"我们认为这表明这种收入的基础能力,到美国来是有点短视的特别需要。

Our results show that you really ought to be more open to the highest quality students, regardless of their wealth or income back in their home countries. So that’s one thing.(21)
我们的研究结果显示你真的应该到最高质量的学生,不管他们的财富或收入回到自己的国家更加开放。这就是一件事。

We would urge modification of American visa policy because of that,” said Maskus.(22)
马斯库斯说: 我们会因此,呼吁美国签证政策的修改"。

Another recommended change concerns permanent residence or green cards.(23)
另一个建议改变关注永久居留或绿卡。

He said, “If you look at policy in other major importing countries, like Western Europe, Canada, Australia – these countries have gone down the road of dramatically increasing the access of what we call green cards -- they call permanent residence – to international students who do get Ph. Ds in science, technology and engineering fields,(24)
他说,"是否你看看政策的其他主要进口国,像西欧、 加拿大、 澳大利亚 — — 这些国家已经走道路的大大增加了我们所称的绿卡的访问 — — 他们称之为永久的居住地 — — 国际学生在科学、 技术和工程领域,什么博士 Ds

whether in their universities in those countries or maybe in the United States or in some of these other countries.(25)
无论是在他们在这些国家或也许在美国或在其中的一些其他国家的大学。

For example, if you get a Ph. D in the United States, it becomes that much easier to become a permanent resident in Canada.”(26)
例如,如果您在美国获得博士学位 D,它成为那更容易成为加拿大永久居民."

Maskus and his colleagues say it would help the U.S. compete in the world if doctoral students had an easier time getting green cards.(27)
马斯库斯和他的同事们说它将帮助美国在世界上竞争如果博士研究生有张绿卡更容易时间。

They say, currently, if those students want to remain in the U.S., they must find a local employer, who’ll work on their behalf to get a temporary visa.(28)
目前,他们说,是否这些学生想要留在美国,他们必须找到一个本地的雇主,就会以他们的名义拿到临时签证工作。

“That does have the effect, we’re convinced, of pushing too many of these innovative people back outside the borders of the United States.(29)
"那不会有影响,我们深信,推回境外美国这些创新的人太多。

So we argue for increasing the number of those visas and focusing on these students -- or even better -- just offering a very quick and straightforward process to permanent residence,” he said.(30)
所以我们主张这些签证和侧重于这些学生 — — 或甚至更好 — 只是提供一个非常快速和简单的过程,到永久居住地的数量增加,"他说。

In their article in the journal Science, the authors say any innovation and economic growth gains would far outweigh any diminished job prospects for American workers.(31)
在他们在科学 》 杂志中的文章,作者说任何创新和经济增长收益将远远超过任何减少的就业前景为美国工人。


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