Reeling in Illicit Fishing
2015-07-31 11:54:03

It’s estimated that illicit fishing accounts for up 26 million tons of seafood a year and costs the global economy as much as 26 billion dollars annually.(1)
据估计,非法捕捞活动占了 2600 万吨的海鲜一年和成本全球经济高达 260 亿美金每年。

An international agreement to help curb the problem is gaining support, but still needs more backers before it can take effect.(2)

Illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing – or IUU – not only causes economic damage, but is a threat to food security and biodiversity.(3)
非法、 未报告和无管制捕鱼 — — 或捕捞活动 — — 不仅造成经济损失,而且是对粮食安全和生物多样性的威胁。

The U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization says IUU encompasses fishing without authorization, harvesting protected species, using outlawed fishing gear and violating quota limits.(4)
联合国粮食及农业组织说 IUU 包括擅自捕鱼,收获受保护的物种、 使用非法的渔具和违反配额限制。

It accounts for over 15 percent of the global seafood take.(5)
它占全球海鲜带的 15%以上。

Dr. Matthew Camilleri, of the FAO’s Fisheries and Aquaculture Policy and Economics Division in Rome, said the problem ranges from big fishing vessels on the high seas to small-scale coastal operations.(6)
博士 Matthew 米莱,粮农组织的渔业和水产养殖政策和经济司在罗马,说问题范围从大渔船在公海到小规模沿海经营。

“Illegal fishing could be that vessels are fishing in areas where fishing is prohibited because there are fragile ecosystems,(7)

which can be affected by fishing activities – or fishing is taking place using fishing gear which is prohibited or the dimensions of the gear are not in line with the regulations that have been set.(8)
它们可以受捕捞活动 — — 或捕鱼发生使用渔具所禁止或齿轮的尺寸是不符合条例 》 已设置。

So, hook sizes may be too small or mesh sizes may be too small, for example.”(9)

He said unreported and under-reported fishing are also widespread.(10)

“Fishing vessels just fail to report on their catches through log books, for example or through electronic systems that are in place.(11)

Or they are not reporting on their actual location.(12)

So, there are many kinds of infringements that could be associated with illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing.”(13)
所以,有很多种可能与非法、 未报告和无管制捕捞相关的侵权行为"。

Camilleri said the illicit practices endanger fish stocks.(14)

“When we say endangered, not in the sense of endangered as being on the verge of extinction,(15)

but endangered in the sense that there are stocks which could be over fished.(16)

This means that there’s going to be fewer and fewer fish available to be caught by the good fishers and, therefore, less availability for future generations,” he said.(17)

Whether fish are caught legally or illegally, they have to be brought to some port to be unloaded and sold.(18)

And a port is a good place for inspection to take place.(19)

In 2009, FAO member countries adopted the Agreement on Port State Measures to Prevent, Deter and Eliminate Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing.(20)
2009 年,粮农组织成员国通过了关于预防、 阻止和消除非法、 未报告和无管制捕鱼港口国措施。

Camilleri said, “The agreement lays down a minimum set of procedures that every port state must follow when accepting foreign fishing vessels coming into their port.(21)
卡米莱里说,"协定 》 规定了一套最低限度的每个端口状态时接受外国渔船进入其港口必须遵循的程序。

There’s a checklist that every state must follow when a foreign fishing vessel requests entry into port, first and foremost.(22)

It is like when an individual is traveling to another country. In some cases you request a visa.”(23)

The agreement outlines what types of inspections would be conducted to ensure the catch is legal.(24)
协定 》 概述了哪些类型的检查将进行,以确保渔获是合法的。

“The agreement goes further in saying that every port state,(25)
"协定 》 更进一步说,每个端口的状态,

that is, every country that is accepting foreign vessels into their countries must designate their ports.(26)

They must specify in which ports foreign vessels are allowed in.(27)

And in those ports there should be the procedures – at least the minimum procedures – defined by the agreement, which need to be implemented,” said Camilleri.(28)
在这些端口应该会有程序 — — 至少最低限度的程序 — — 由协定 》,需要实现,定义"说卡米莱里。

Efforts outside of ports can include satellite monitoring of fishing vessel movements, as well as sea patrols in fishing zones.(29)

To take effect, the agreement needs to be approved by 25 countries.(30)
生效,该协议需要由 25 个国家的批准。

Twelve already have done so, including the European Union, which actually counts as a single country. Two more are expected to join soon.(31)

In the United States, the process to join the agreement is reported moving forward.(32)
在美国,过程加入协定 》 报道前进。

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