Pollution Threatens Health of 200 Million
2014-01-07 00:30:43

From VOA Learning English, this is Science in the News. I’m June Simms.(1)
从美国之音英语学习,这是科技新闻。我 6 月西姆斯。

And I’m Faith Lapidus. Today we will tell you about a new report on pollution. It says pollution problems are threatening the health of up to 200 million people worldwide.(2)
我信心枪击。今天我们将告诉你关于污染新的报告。它说的污染问题正在威胁着世界各地的达 2 亿人的健康。

We will also report on concerns about dam projects in Vietnam.(3)

And we will tell you how some Buddhist monks are learning to protect fresh water supplies high in the Himalayan Mountains.(4)

Two independent environmental groups have produced a report listing 10 of the world’s most dangerously-polluted places.(5)
两个独立的环境小组制作了一个报告,列出 10 世界上污染最危险的地方。

The two are the American-based Blacksmith Institute and Green Cross Switzerland. The 10 places are spread over eight countries in Africa, Asia, Eastern Europe, and Latin America.(6)
这两个是基于美国的铁匠研究所和绿十字瑞士。10 个地方传播超过八个国家在非洲、 亚洲、 东欧和拉丁美洲。

The report says open areas polluted by dangerous environmental toxins are threatening the lives of tens of millions of people.(7)

The report says the substances are affecting people through the air they breathe, the food they eat or skin contact.(8)

The toxins include lead, cadmium, chrome, oil, pesticides, phenols, mercury, sarin, radionuclides and organic compounds.(9)
毒素包括铅、 镉、 铬、 石油、 农药、 酚类化合物、 汞、 沙林、 放射性核素、 有机化合物。

David Hanrahan is a technical adviser with the Blacksmith Institute. He told VOA that four of the places on the list were on his group’s first list, which was released in 2006.(10)
大卫 · 汉拉恩是一名技术顾问与铁匠研究所。他告诉美国之音四列表上的地方都在他组的第一个列表,在 2006 年被释放。

“We have Chernobyl -- which is not going to go away, obviously -- in the Ukraine.(11)
"我们有切尔诺贝利 — — 不会就此消失很明显 — — 在乌克兰。

We have two sites in Russia -- which one is a huge smelter, the other is a major chemical complex, which we think used to do a lot of chemical weapons.(12)

We have the mining site in Zambia, which I said work has been done to improve. But, unfortunately, it’s an extremely poor, abandoned place.”(13)
我们有在赞比亚,我说已经开展工作,以提高采矿站点。但是,不幸的是,它是一个极差、 被遗弃的地方"。

The other areas are in Argentina, Bangladesh, Ghana, Indonesia and the Niger River Delta of Nigeria.(14)
其它领域是在阿根廷、 孟加拉国、 加纳、 印度尼西亚和尼日利亚尼日尔河三角洲。

David Hanrahan notes progress in cleaning up some of world’s most dangerously-polluted places.(15)
大卫 · 汉拉恩注意到在一些世界上最危险地污染地方清理方面取得进展。

For example, he says, the Dominican Republic was on the first top 10 list because of high levels of lead at a recycling center.(16)
例如,他说,多米尼加共和国是第一次 10 排行榜上由于回收中心在含铅量高。

He says the country was removed from the list after the center was cleaned up and made into a playground for children.(17)

Mr. Hanrahan is reporting similar successful clean-ups in other places. They include India and eastern Russia, and in some Chinese cities, which have reduced air pollution.(18)
汉拉恩先生报告类似成功清洁-ups 在其他地方。他们包括印度和俄罗斯东部,和在一些中国的城市,这减少了空气污染。

He says in the past, experts often underestimated the link between health and the environment. But he says public health officials in many countries now understand the need to deal with pollution.(19)

“…problems that are, are really of the similar order as the big international public health concerns like tuberculosis and malaria, HIV/AIDS.(20)

Toxic pollution is in many countries the same order of magnitude and that is being recognized, which is one of the things we’re really quite pleased about.”(21)

David Hanrahan says more and more governments recognize that environmental pollution is a problem that can be solved.(22)
大卫 · 汉拉恩更说各国政府认识到环境污染是一个可以解决的问题。

He says developing countries are seeing improvements in the health of their citizens -- especially among children who are most at risk of getting sick or dying.(23)
他说,发展中国家正在看到改善健康的公民 — — 尤其是儿童最得到生病或死亡的危险。

Policymakers, activists and others gathered recently for talks about water, food and energy in the Mekong River Basin. The discussions took place in Vietnam’s capital, Hanoi.(24)
政策制定者、 活动家和其他人最近收集水、 食品和能源在湄公河流域举行了会谈。在越南首都河内进行了讨论。

Over the past three years, work crews have been building the Xayaburi dam in Laos. The dam is one of the most controversial hydropower projects in the Mekong.(25)

It has tested the strength of the Mekong River Commission, which represents Laos, Cambodia, Thailand and Vietnam.(26)
它已经测试强度的湄公河委员会,它表示老挝、 柬埔寨、 泰国和越南。

Some countries say the dam could affect fish populations downriver from the dam. But work on the project has continued.(27)

Hans Guttman is the chief executive officer of the Mekong River Commission. He says he believes the dam showed the commission’s member countries could talk about difficult issues.(28)
Hans Guttman 是湄公河委员会首席执行官。他说他相信大坝表明该委员会的成员国家可以谈困难的问题。

Carl Middleton is a lecturer at Chulalongkorn University in the Thai capital, Bangkok.(29)
卡尔 • 米德尔顿是在泰国首都曼谷朱拉隆功大学的讲师。

He says he was not sure anything had been learned, especially about listening to the public and talking with people about the effect of dam projects.(30)

He says Laos started working in October on another dam -- the Don Sahong.(31)
他说: 老挝开始对另一坝 — — 唐 Sahong 在 10 月中工作。

“The opportunity that cross-border cooperation agreements say the Mekong agreement offers -- the way of creating channels for responsibility to move across borders easily --(32)
"跨界合作协定的机会说湄公河协议提供 — — 创造渠道的责任,要轻松地越过边界的方法 — —

it essentially failed in the case of Xayaburi because those mechanisms didn’t facilitate great cross-border responsibility and the issue of justice got caught up in national territories rather than having a regional justice system.(33)

Can things be better for Don Sahong? We’ll have to wait and see.”(34)
东西可以更好地为唐 Sahong 吗?我们得等着瞧"。

The meeting in Hanoi was the idea of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research. The group provides financial support for research on agricultural crop breeding.(35)

It hopes a new map of dam projects in the Mekong would persuade governments to consider their effect on communities and the environment.(36)

Carl Middleton says mapping is useful. But he thinks more needs to be done to include people whose occupations are affected in the decision-making process.(37)
卡尔 · 米德尔顿说映射是很有用。但他认为更多需要做,包括在决策过程中的人因职业关系而受到影响。

“The energy security comes at the expense of the forms of security that come from rivers, like food security and water security,(38)

so the question is: ‘How do you have a more integrated policy making that recognizes the current value that rivers provide whilst at the same time helping meet everyone’s energy needs as well?’(39)
so the question is:' 你怎么有更综合的政策制定,承认的河流,在同一时间帮助满足每个人的能源需求,以及提供的当前值?'

‘Is it necessary that one be sacrificed for the other?’”(40)

Mr. Middleton says countries need energy for economic development. But he thinks they should think about ways to produce energy that do not require the building of hydropower dams.(41)

Representatives from 50 Buddhist monasteries gathered in India late last year for talks on protecting the high Himalayan mountain ranges and the Tibetan plateau.(42)
来自 50 佛教寺院的代表聚集在印度去年年底保护高的喜马拉雅山脉和西藏高原的会谈。

The meeting was called the 5th Khoryug Conference on Environmental Protection for Tibetan Buddhist Monasteries and Nunneries in the Himalayas.(43)
会议是为藏传佛教寺院和尼姑庵喜马拉雅山呼吁环境保护的第五届 Khoryug 会议。

The organizers were the World Wildlife Fund’s Sacred Earth program and Khoryug -- an organization of 50 Buddhist monasteries.(44)
组织者是世界野生动物基金神圣地球程序和 Khoryug — — 一个组织的 50 的佛教寺院。

The representatives discussed how to protect the area and its fresh water supplies. They also heard how some grass lands are becoming deserts, and how lakes and river systems are drying up.(45)

The Buddhist monks and nuns heard how to protect local water sources. They also were told how to increase the amount of groundwater by harvesting rainwater.(46)

Organizers of the conference hope the representatives will tell local villagers, and workers in other monasteries, what they learned.(47)

Tenzin Norbu is the Director of Environment and Development in the Central Tibetan Administration in Dharamsala.(48)

“When they go back, they should respect the value of the water.(49)

So I think since most of these are from the Himalayan area which is connected to the Tibetan plateau, I think they should know the importance of the place where they came from,(50)

so that they can also create local awareness on how important it is to protect the Himalayan glaciers and the Himalayan area as such.”(51)

Ogyen Trinley Dorje also was at the meeting. He is expected to become the spiritual leader of Tibet when the current Dalai Lama dies.(52)
Ogyen 伍多杰也参加了那个会议。他预计当前达赖喇嘛去世时成为西藏的精神领袖。

He says studies show that the entire world faces an environmental emergency.(53)
他说: 研究显示整个世界面临着环境紧急情况。

But he says Tibet and all of Asia face what he calls a “very immediate emergency.” He spoke to a VOA reporter in New Delhi through a translator.(54)

“Among particular concerns I think the unprecedented amount of development in Tibet is causing serious pollution of water sources and also of course the melting of the glaciers and permafrost caused by climate change are an immediate source of threat to Tibet,(55)

Tibetan water and therefore to all of Asia which gets much of its water from the Tibetan plateau.”(56)

Ogyen Trinley Dorje has not involved himself with political issues linked to Tibet, and he has not spoken much in public since he fled Tibet in 2000.(57)
Ogyen 伍多杰不涉及自己与链接到西藏的政治问题,他没有说这话很多在公共场合因为他在 2000 年逃离西藏。

But he is concerned about the environment and has been speaking about the issue.(58)

He says the Buddhist value of contentment -- being pleased -- could help save the environment by pushing back against consumerism, which he says is eating up the Earth’s resources.(59)
他说 — — 正在高兴 — — 知足的佛教值能帮助拯救环境通过推回他说吃完地球资源的消费主义、 反对。

This Science in the News was written by Christopher Cruise. It was based on reports from Lisa Schlein in Geneva, Marianne Brown in Hanoi, and Anjana Pasricha in New Delhi. Our producer was June Simms. I’m Faith Lapidus.(60)
这一科学的新闻是写的克里斯托弗 · 巡航。它基于来自丽莎施莱因日内瓦,在河内,玛丽安布朗和 Anjana 帕斯理恰在新德里的报告。我们的制作人 6 月西姆斯。我的信念枪击。

And I’m June Simms. You can comment on this story on our website, learningenglish. voanews.com.(61)
而我 6 月西姆斯。你可以在我们网站上,作文这个故事发表评论。voanews.com。

Follow us on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and iTunes and our YouTube Channel, all at VOA Learning English.(62)
按照我们上 Facebook、 Twitter、 LinkedIn 和 iTunes 和我们的 YouTube 频道,都是在美国之音学习英语。

Join us next week at this time for more news about science on the Voice of America.(63)

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